Katarzyna Górak-Sosnowska Religijni i niepoczytalni? Terroryzm muzułmański w świetle badań psychologicznych. Religious and mad? Islamic terrorism. Islam wobec globalizacji. Islam “Islam był i jest zakorzeniony w życiu duchowym swoich wyznawców silniej, niż zakłada to wielu zachodnich. Globalization is the challange for religion, on which religion and Islam . [in:] A. Mrozek-Dumanowska, J. Zdanowski, Islam a globalizacja, Warszawa , p.
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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Islam and global globailzacja This paper discusses the state of religion in the future global civilization. Religion is one of the major driving forces of the future. This means that the globalization process powered by technological, economic, and political forces has to travel through and take root in the diverse cultures of the world.
Globalization is the challange for religion, on which religion and Islam particullary must responce. In the case of the Muslim world, globalization is sometimes identified with Westernization.
It might cause concerns over the impact of this proceses on Islamic cultural heritage and is regarded as a threat to the Muslim faith or identity. This paper indicates potentional obstacles on the way isslam global co-operation beetween different cultures but also highligts religious pillars of global globalizqcja, particularly an ethos of solidarity, community, ethic norms and the attachment to identiy, which are present in Islam and might be useful in creating the new global order.
Respect aa cultural diversity must be part of this new world order. Introduction Globalization constitutes one of the major, although least recognized, megatrends of the present day, therefore it is not easy to define globalization, and not only for the reason that when talking about it we mean economic, political as well as cultural processes and their effects.
This metaphor reflects well the phenomena occurring around. Namely, in the contemporary world, many local cultures or economies glpbalizacja, penetrate or adopt one another, which means that they are rarely functioning in full isolation. Nevertheless, it cannot be recognized that all such rivers, when meeting together, form one joint delta.
Quite the opposite, gobalizacja progresses, there appear lines separating all what is within the main stream of global globalization, from what is out of this stream. Sometimes such effects are defined as Americanization westernizationbecause most models of behaviours determining perception of the world come from the pop culture of the United Isla. Also erosion of the values and authorities creating cultural social identity is connected with popularization of the low culture.
This gives rise to attitudes opposing to generally dominating tendencies towards standardization of values and cultural models, which sometimes assume extreme forms, such as e. Mutual animosities between the culture of the West and world of Islam, which opposes imposition of the western values in the strongest way, cause that the Islamic civilization tends towards forming a new, competitive in relation to the West, vision of developing and underlining traditional values of its civilization.
Globalization is both a process of integration especially economic one and standing out against it. Globalization is understood as crossing the borders and even their disappearance. Usually this is associated with the flow of goods or services, in other words – with economic activity. However, globalization is also connected with the flow of intangible assets — norms, values and patterns of behaviours.
This means that previous contacts are intensifying – people, societies, cultures and civilizations have regular contacts with one globslizacja and this process is inevitable. In consequence of that, new cultural ties are constantly formed.
Alien values, norms and behaviours influence existing social relations 1. Some culturally alien elements melt into a local culture, while others are rejected. Despite this fact, the process of exchanging the models of culture, values and behaviours does not proceed symmetrically.
Globalization and Islam
The values of the West, thanks to the economic and technological advantage, have superiority over the standards from outside the western culture. What is more, globalization is the main driving force of social, economic and political transformations, and it shapes the new world order. Deep and multiplanar connections between countries constitute the dominant feature of globalization. Such transformations do not have globaliaacja lead to creation of ialam global society of some kind, on the contrary – globalization is accompanied by ispam stratification.
Certain countries are more and more interlinked with the global order, while other countries are marginalized. Global processes go across countries, penetrate all societies and regions. As a result of that, there 1 A.
The hierarchy of cultures had a considerable influence on iwlam of globalization: Peripheral values had a chance to penetrate into the international circulation, if they were first legitimatised by cultures with long tradition of spiritual and moral leadership gloalizacja symbolic authority over others. At present, the relations between the central culture and peripheral cultures have been replaced by another hierarchy: Local cultures are connected both with a nation and regional globailzacja religious group identity2.
Whereas globalization, which changes the hierarchy of relations, is often perceived as standardization, subordination to the global or universal culture. These both terms are very often used interchangeably. The category of universalization contains a hope for occurrence of the order on a global scale and globaliaacja creation of the same models and norms for all people. The process of its creation has not been closed yet; this culture is constantly changing and transforming, although some of its features can be distinguished.
And so, Samuel P. Huntington recognized the following items as the elements capable of creating the universal culture: Firstly, fundamental values, which can be common for all societies, for instance, recognizing murder as evil, basic concepts of good and evil, universal morality. Secondly, globalizacjaa common to civilized societies, such as cities, literacy, which distinguish them from primitive communities. Thirdly, the beliefs, values and doctrines accepted currently by many people from the circle of the western culture and by some people belonging to other circles of culture.
And, after all, this is a spread of similar models of consumption and mass culture3. Globalziacja aforementioned elements are derived from the circle of the western culture. It is proved that this culture brought many values into the world heritage, which can be perceived as universal, and sometimes also as global ones. That is because the product of culture is labelled as universality due to its importance in the scale of the past commemorationpresent and future the source of inspiration, unattainable model, classicality.
While the global culture is classified, first of all, as to its range in the glovalizacja and immediate presence telepresence 4. In the past, the western culture provided universal values rather than global 2 K. Thanks to mass media and the influence of the western mass culture, the global culture gains stronger and stronger western features.
According to opponents of the supremacy of the West, this situation strengthens islqm feeling of the West of its exceptionality. Hence, the problem of presence of religion in the public life, especially of Islam, which is considered incompatible with the globalization formed under the influence of the processes that have their source in the western culture, arouses many emotions.
Migracje a globalizacja
Religion and globalization All over the world, there are observed transformations in the religious situation – revival and animation of great religious systems, especially of Islam, which became a factor of social and political significance. Despite the visions of the new world order, functioning on the basis of secular values, modern states, international economy and general technological progress, religion came back to a global discussion.
It came back thanks to the theses about a rift or even a clash between large groups of people. According to Huntington, quoted above, the main axis of the conflict between civilizations will run between the Western and Islamic civilization.
The latter, due to inseparable connection with the religious system, will try to compete with the secularized Western civilization, using religion in order to achieve global supremacy. Indeed, the process of revival and revitalization of Islam started in the early s. One of the effects of this renaissance is, among other things, cultural revival, which assumes a form of resistance against the universal, global order, through contrasting it with own, different values based on Islam, often presented as superior.
Religious revival movements constitute a strong counterweight for the cultural domination of the West, because main assumptions of such movements are fundamentally different form the assumptions and goals of globalization5. On one hand, an escape from and marginalization of the religion are connected with the process of globalization. The religion has been pushed aside to the private sphere, which, in case of Islam, is in conflict with its basic guidelines.
Traditionalistic and fundamental forms of religions, which — as it could seem – lost definitely the fight against the modernity and became marginal phenomena, revive again. Fear of many communities, caused by the unification pressure of the global culture, provides religion – especially its 5 A.
Zdanowski, Islam a globalizacja, Warszawap.
Besides, revival of religions, as one of the ways serving consolidation of group identity, is also a method for coming to power and competition for influence in the globalization process. That is because religion, by its nature, aims at influencing the entire society. And although the processes of secularization pushed religion from many fields of social life, they were not iskam to replace moralistic functions of religion.
The ethics of the great religions explains not only the origin of good and evil upon the Earth, but also gives meaning to the lives of the believers.
Through a clear message and a defined system of values, it builds the feeling of safety in the constantly changing world 6. However, attachment to a religious tradition can isam the attitudes of dissonance and unfitness to requirements of the culture of the global world. Religion is perceived through the prism of its possible interference in the global culture. The presence of systems of globaoizacja in the public sphere is generally identified with backwardness perceived as inability to introduce the following problems to the public discussion: The first scenario assumes rivalry between religious systems for the global leadership in the sphere of values.
This exclusivism can lead to tensions and intolerance in relations between the followers of individual religions who, trying to defend their own identity, will close in their own religion and culture. This may cause further development of movements of fundamental nature. The second scenario describes heterogenization of religious systems.
When they become more open, they coexist in accordance with the principles of cultural relativism. The religious pluralism assumes functioning, side by side, 6 See: Falk, Religion and global governance: And the third, flobalizacja optimistic scenario, called inclusivism, says about creation of the global ethical system.
This scenario, similarly to the pluralistic one, emphasizes common ground of moral values of all religions.
Globalization and Islam Research Papers –
Thanks to the values existing in each religion, it will be possible to create a citizen of the world, who will be open to otherness and tolerant. Only thanks to inclusivism, development of the global society will be possible 8. The question is whether such forecasts will have a chance to prove correct, if one of the paradoxes of globalization is striving for the situation, where the common world is not dominated by an influence of any religion or religious community.
The public space should remain secular. Unfortunately, such argumentation leads, in consequence, to raising secularity itself to the rank of something pious.
Whereas, religion can be an activating force, and thus play an important role in development of globalization. Even if some religious movements are concentrated on contestation of main ideas and structures of the global order, they still complement the process of globalization.
At the whole simplification carried by inclusivism, most religions still share certain convictions, which can jointly create global governance. This is, first of all, the ethos of solidarity, which puts emphasis on the glibalizacja origin of all people. It stresses their dignity and glibalizacja need of cooperation for the good of mankind.
Besides, religions, when creating ethical standards, are able to regulate many aspects of the global reality.