This is a reprint of the English Translation of the Nyaya Sutras of Gautama by Mm . Dr. Ganganatha Jha, the versatile Sanskrit scholar who will ever be. Where There’s Smoke There’s Fire: Gautama’s Nyāya-Sūtra. Posted on 10 December The Nyāya-Sūtra inaugurates a tradition of logical and. Nyaya: Gautama’s Nyaya-sutra, with Vatsyayana’s commentary (Indian philosophy in its sources) [Gautama (Authority on Nyayasastra)] on *FREE*.
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A gzutama, for instance, is yellow in some parts and green in other parts. Other historical Indian commentaries and works inspired by Nyayasutras and which have survived into the modern era, include Nyaya-varttika by 6th-century Uddyotakara, Nyaya-bhasyatika by 6th-century Bhavivikta, another Nyaya-bhasyatika by 7th-century Aviddhakarna, Nyaya-bhusana by 9th-century Bhasarvajana, Nyaya-manjari gahtama 9th-century Kashmir scholar Jayanta Bhatta, Nyaya-prakirnaka by 10th-century Karnata scholar Trilocana, and Nyaya-kandali by 10th-century Bengal scholar Sridhara.
One form of inference is a Purvavator as Fowler translates, “from cause to effect or a priori”. The five elements viz. But by the same argument we are afraid that non-perception of the cause of inaudition would mean constant audition. But if the original materials are different their modifications are ex- pected to be different.
Nose, tongue, eye, skin and ear are the souses produced from elements. But the substance, in which sound abides, cannot be the abode of any other qualities.
Likewise there is, they say, the chance of an end- less doubt owing to the continuity of its cause. It is the recollection of pleasure and pain associated with the things which are perceived.
In order to convey a general notion, pre-eminence is given to the genus. Similarly, we, the objectors admit the existence of the veil though we do not perceive it. It is obvious that the second interpretation similarly proves the non-eternality of sound. This knowledge of a previously unperceived object derived through its similarity to a per- ceived object is, it has been said, nothing but a case of inference.
A lamp illumines a jar and our eye illumines the lamp. Thus the visual perception is called eye-knowledge or colour- knowledge, the auditory perception is called ear-knowledge or sound- knowledge, the olfactory perception is called nose-knowledge or smell- knowledge, the gustatory perception is called tongue-knowledge or taste- knowledge and the tactual perception is called skin-knowledge or touch- knowledge.
The first ten sutras of the text in Sanskrit. The order referred to is as follows: In the case of colour, however, the manifestation takes place just at the time when the jar comes into union with the lamp. In the case of letters, however, there is no fixed rule, e.
An objector may say that the bautama of a sense with its object is not the cause of perception, as we find that a person listening to a song may not see colour naya it comes in contact with his eye.
On the other hand, the non-perception of a veil is not a thing fit to be perceived.
If there was no otherness there would, be no sameness. If a sense were the soul it could apprehend only one object, but li I ” can apprehend many objects, that is, ” I ” can see colour, hear soun I, an I s on.
The Nyaya-Sutras Of Gautama: With The Bhasya Of Vatsyayana And The Vartika Of Uddyotakara
Proposition — Sound is non-eternal, Reason — Because it is produced, Heterogeneous example — Whatever is not non-eternal is not produced, as the soul. So sutraa the supposition of impermanency of letters, modification is impossible.
A reliable person is one — may be a risi, Arya or mleccha, who as an expert in a certain matter is willing to communicate his experiences of it. A ray of the sun is not prevented gautsma reaching a combustible substance though the latter is screened by a crystal. Views Read Edit View history. Sound has not for its substratum any of the tangible substances, viz.
Every creature is born with some desires which are associated with the things enjoyed by him in the past life.
Nyāya Sūtras – Wikipedia
It is said that while we see a tall object in the twilight, we at once think of a man and a post, both of which are tall. In case of well-known facts admitted by all, there should be no examination. If on the other hand they do not partake of the nature of senses, then it is to be admitted that colour, sound, etc. These four pregnant expressions MahAvakya originated from the Brahmanas, whence it ‘may be concluded Nirguna-Brahma-Vidya or knowledge of absolute Brahma was confined among them.
Subject matter and statement of purpose of the text. The verbal testi- mony is, therefore, supposed by Borne to be inference, as the object revealed by both is unperceived.
For instance, if we see in the twilight a tall object which moves we do not doubt whether it is a man or a post.
Similarly you must admit a general notion of the means of right knowledge as distinguished from that of the objects of right knowledge.
Hence the world is an illusion or has a mere conditional existence. It is not in a bos gavaeus unperceived that we find the real matter of comparison. The aphorism may also be explained as follows: Not so, since it is influenced by him. This, we reply, is no contradiction since rumour is included in verbal testimony, and presumption, probabi- lity and non-existence are included in inference.
Then again, there is the sytra insurmountable difficulty of determining, in the case of the Sutras and the Bhasyawhether the whole work proceeded from one author or consists of parts ascribable to different authors belonging to different times.
It is, I reply, not so because I spoke of those modifications which originated from different materials. Suppose that the parts alone are real.